In the realm of workplace safety, the concept of Behavioral Safety often raises a critical question: Does it merely blame workers for accidents? This concern is a recurring theme in discussions with workers and union leaders. Behavioral Safety hinges on the active participation of motivated employees, and misconceptions about it can severely hinder its effectiveness.
The Root of the Misunderstanding
The term 'behavioral' itself seems to imply that workers are at fault. This notion is further reinforced by studies from organizations like DuPont and the National Safety Council. These studies suggest that a majority of industrial accidents, sometimes as high as 96%, result from unsafe acts by workers rather than unsafe conditions. However, this perspective is somewhat misleading.
These studies focused on prevention methods rather than pinpointing the exact cause of accidents. An accident preventable by employee action was labeled as 'caused by unsafe acts', but this doesn’t necessarily mean that the behavior was the root cause.
The 'Plane Crash Mentality'
Many workplaces historically mirrored the approach used in aviation accident investigations – attributing incidents to either mechanical failure or pilot error. This binary view led to a hunt for unsafe conditions or individual behaviors responsible for accidents. Consequently, when Behavioral Safety programs are introduced, there’s a fear among workers that it would mean ignoring unsafe conditions and placing undue blame on them.
Statistical Process Control (SPC) Insights
SPC teaches us that in systems under statistical control, defects are not due to special causes but are common to the system. Similarly, in safety, if accidents are under statistical control, their causes are not unique or special. Investigating for special causes implies that worker behavior is unusually dangerous and to blame.
Behavioral Observation: Spying or Safety?
An essential component of Behavioral Safety is having workers observe each other to identify practices impacting safety. Unfortunately, this is sometimes seen as spying, especially where the legacy of 'safety cops' finding and punishing rule breakers exists. Workers may view this surveillance as fault-finding rather than a safety measure.
When Perception Meets Reality
Occasionally, the perception that Behavioral Safety is a blame game is accurate. Some initiatives are indeed rooted in the belief that workers are the primary cause of accidents. To ensure the success of a behavioral approach, both the perception and reality of blame must be addressed.
The Role of Performance Management
Performance management suggests that behaviors in organizations don’t occur in isolation but are influenced by organizational forces. W. Edward Deming stated, "Behavior is determined by the system in which it takes place." Changing behaviors without addressing these influences often leads to temporary solutions.
A Blueprint for Avoiding the Blame Trap
Assess the site and accident data.
Conduct surveys and discussion groups to understand safety practices and openness to new methods.
Ensure confidentiality of observational data.
Educate Behavioral Safety teams about the potential blaming issue.
Assign a management liaison for direct communication.
Involve the entire organization.
Provide thorough process understanding and training.
Address the blaming issue in management briefings.
Shift focus from punishment to prevention.
Support and enhance programs promoting safe behavior.
Redirect punitive measures towards habitual offenders, not average workers.
Use data to understand risk-taking behavior and address organizational influences.
Celebrate improvements and publicize new guidelines.
Correcting a Blaming Culture in Existing Programs:
Acknowledge and solve the problem.
Clarify the purpose of blaming.
Provide supervisors with alternative tools.
Encourage cooperation in resolving safety issues.
Regularly review and reinforce the new approach.
Involve employees in creating solutions.
It’s easy to fall into the trap of blaming workers for accidents, but it’s vital to recognize and address this tendency in Behavioral Safety efforts. In our fast-paced, competitive world, understanding and correctly implementing Behavioral Safety is crucial for workplace safety. Remember, we are here as a resource and support on your journey towards safety excellence.